Terpenes

When most of us talk about Cannabis, we describe:

The Smell, the Taste, how it affects you, and what benefits it provides.

But, did you know that there’s 1 type of compound that helps facilitate all of these? That compound is a Terpene.

Terpenes are Organic Compounds that deter insect predation, defends plants from environmental strains, are semiochemicals that communicate with other living organisms, and act as building blocks for more complex molecules like cannabinoids.

Terpenes are known most for their aroma. The pine, lemon, dank, and/or earthy smells are all thanks to terpenes. However, their main function is to interact with each other, and the cannabinoids present in Cannabis, to provide the medicinal benefits you receive.   Scientists have since coined this interaction as the “Entourage Effect”.

Scientists have now found 120 types terpenes in Cannabis, but most are in trace amounts.

Below, we have compiled the list of the primary and secondary terpenes that provide the flavors and benefits we know and love in Cannabis.

PRIMARY

TERPENES

Myrcene

Myrcene is the most prevalent terpene found in Cannabis. It gives off a Musky, Earthy Aroma and/or a Fruity Aroma. The notable uses for this terpene are:

  • Reducing Inflammation; and

  • Reducing Chronic Pain

 

Myrcene can provide a sedative effect if in abundance over 0.5%, or an energizing effect if less than 0.5%.

Strains abundant in Myrcene are:

  • White Widow

  • Grape Ape

  • Mango Kush

  • Pure Kush

Limonene

Limonene is the 2nd most abundant Terpene in Cannabis which exudes a citrusy or lemony smell. On a medicinal level, this terpene is known for:

  • Reducing Anxiety and Depression

  • Improving Mood

  • Reducing Stress

  • Anti-fungal and Anti-bacterial Properties

 

More research is being conducted on Limonene’s role in reducing tumor size as well.

Popular Strains with Limonene include:

  • OG Kush

  • Sour Diesel

  • Jack Herer

  • Durban Poison

  • Lemon Haze

Pinene

α Pinene and β Pinene, found abundantly in pine trees, is that fresh pine smell you find in Sativas. This terpene is most notable in producing these effects:

  • Anti-Inflammatory

  • Improved Airflow and Respiratory Functions

  • Anti-Bacterial

  • Reduced Memory Loss related to THC

 

Pinene has also been shown to help patients with Cancer, Arthritis, and Crohn’s Disease.

Some popular strains rich in Pinene are:

  • Jack Herer

  • OG Kush

  • Trainwreck

  • Strawberry Cough

  • Blue Dream

Linalool

Linalool provides the floral aroma in Cannabis with some spicy notes in the background. Also found in lavender, this terpene provides the same effects that are prominent in the other herbs it is in, which are:

  • Strong Sedative

  • Easing Tension

  • Stress Reliever

 

Linalool is also used medicinally as an analgesic and anti-epileptic.

 

Popular Strains with Linalool are:

  • Amnesia Haze

  • Lavender

  • Master Kush

  • OG Shark

  • LA Confidential

β Caryophyllene

β Caryophyllene, found in black pepper, is known for it’s peppery and spicy notes. Of all the terpenes, Caryophyllene is the only one that binds to Cannabinoid Receptors. The effects this terpene provides are:

  • Anti-inflammatory

  • Analgesic

  • Anti-anxiety

 

New studies are showing promising results with alcohol rehabilitation as well.

Popular Strains with Caryophyllene are:

  • Skywalker OG

  • Chemdawg

  • Super Silver Haze

  • Rockstar

  • Sour Diesel

Humulene

Humulene is the hoppy smelling Terpene found in Cannabis. Mostly abundant in hops which are used to make beer, Humulene provides an aroma of woody, earthy, and spicy notes. The beneficial effects of this Terpene are:

  • Appetite Suppression

  • Anti-Proliferative (Prevents the growth of Cancer)

  • Anti-Inflammatory

  • Anti-Bacterial

  • Pain Relief

 

The notable strains with Humulene are:

  • Girl Scout Cookies

  • Headband

  • Skywalker OG

  • White Widow

  • GG4

  • Chemdawg

  • Jack Herer

  • Hindu Kush

Geraniol

Geraniol exudes an aroma of Rose, Peach, and Plum. This Terepene is present in Geraniums and tobacco with these beneficial effects:

  • Neuroprotectant

  • Antioxidant

 

Normally found in perfumes and body lotions, it can also be utilized for mosquito repellant.

 

Popular Strains with Geraniol are:

  • Afghan

  • Headband

  • Amnesia Haze

  • Skunk Genetics

Ocimene

Ocimene is known for it’s sweet, herby, and woody aroma. This Terpene is additionally found in mint, parsley, and basil. The beneficial effects of Ocimene are:

  • Anti-Viral

  • Anti-Inflammatory

  • Anti-Fungal

 

Ocimene also is a key component in a plant’s defense.

 

Some Popular Strains with Ocimene are:

  • Arjan’s Haze

  • OG Kush

  • Sour Diesel

Terpinolene

Terpinolene expresses a fresh, piney, floral, herbal, and occasional citrusy aroma. Found in plants like nutmeg and lilacs, this terpene provides benefits such as:

  • Antioxidant

  • Antibacterial

  • Antifungal

  • Sedative

  • Anticancer

 

Some Popular Strains with Terpinolene are:

  • Jack Herer Genetics

  • Afghani

  • Pineapple Kush

  • Lemon Sour Diesel

Terpineol

Like Terpinolene, Terpineol has a floral-like scent present in plants like Lilacs. Known as the “Couch Lock” Terpene, it provides these benefits:

  • Strong Relaxant

  • Antibiotic

  • Antioxidant

 

New research is showing promise that Terpineol can kill tumors and help eliminate cancer.

 

Popular Strains with Terpineol include:

  • OG Kush

  • Jack Herer

  • Girl Scout Cookies

  • White Widow

Valencene

Coined from Valencia Oranges, Valencene exudes a sweet, citrus aroma. This terpene still has a long road ahead with research on its benefits, but scientists have found that this terpene can provide these effects:

  • Anti-Inflammatory

  • Insect Repellant

 

Popular Strains with Valencene include:

  • Tangie

  • Agent Orange

  • Sour Diesel

SECONDARY

TERPENES

Bisabolol

Bisabolol has a floral aroma that is mostly found in Chamomile Flowers.

 

Some of its beneficial effects are:

  • Anti-Bacterial

  • Antioxidant

  • Anti-Irritant

  • Analgesic

 

New research has also shown that Bisabolol can induce apoptosis in certain types of leukemia.

 

Strains that are high in Bisabolol are:

  • ACDC

  • Headband

  • Harle-Tsu

  • Gorilla Glue

  • Diamond Girl

Borneol

Borneol has a minty, spicy, menthol aroma and is found in mint and rosemary. The benefits this terpene provides include:

  • Anti-Inflammatory

  • Anti-Nociceptive (Reduction in Nerve Pain)

  • Analgesic

  • Sleep Aid

  • Bronchodilator

 

Studies have also found that Borneol can kill Breast Cancer Cells and is a good insect repellant. This terpene has also been used for centuries for acupuncture.

 

The strains that have high levels of Borneol include:

  • Most “Haze” Genetics

Camphene

Camphene exudes a musky, earthy aroma that’s prevalent in fir needles and is often mistaken for Myrcene. Unlike Myrcene, this terpene is already widely used in medicine for eczema, psoriasis and cardiovascular disease.

 

Other beneficial effects include:

  • Pain Relief

  • Antioxidant

 

Popular Strains with Camphene include:

  • Mendocino Purps

  • Strawberry Banana

  • Ghost OG

Camphor

Camphor has a menthol aroma and is found in the camphor tree. This terpene provides these benefits:

  • Local Anaesthetic

  • Antimicrobial

  •  Pain Relief

 

Camphor can easily absorb through the skin. When applied, it produces a cooling sensation that’s similar to Menthol.

 

Strains that contain high levels of Camphor include:

  • Durban Poison

  • White Flower

  • Mendocino Purps

Carene

Delta 3 Carene has a sweet, pungent odor and is found in cedar and pine resin. This terpene has some unique benefits, such as:

  • Healing Broken Bones

  • Dries out excess bodily fluid (Sweat, Mucus, Tears)

  • Stimulates Memory and Memory Retention

 

Carene is one of the major items in the search to cure Alzheimer’s disease.

 

Strains that are high in Carene include:

  • Skunk #1

  • Arjan’s Ultra Haze

  • Super Lemon Haze

Cedrene

α-Cedrene has a woody, sweet, fresh aroma and is found in cedar. Very little research has been done on the beneficial effects of this terpene.

Cymene

Cymene has a musty tang aroma and is found in Cumin and Thyme. The beneficial effects of this terpene are:

  • Anti-Inflammatory

  • Protective against acute lung injury

  • Antibiotic

  • Analgesic

Eucalyptol

Eucalyptol has a minty, earthy aroma and is the primary component in Eucalyptus. The beneficial effects this terpene provides are:

  • Antifungal

  • Analgesic

 

Eucalyptol has also shown promising results in treating Alzheimer’s.

 

Strains that have Eucalyptol include:

  • Super Silver Haze

  • Headband

  • Girl Scout Cookies

  • Bubba Kush

Fenchol

Fenchol has a piney, woody, dry aroma and is found in Basil. The benefits this terpene provides are:

  • Antimicrobial

  • Antioxidant

  • Limited Antifungal

 

Strains that have Fenchol include:

  • OG Genetics

  • Kush Genetics

Geranyl Acetate

Geranyl Acetate has a strong floral aroma with fruity undertones. It is found in lemongrass, sassafras, and roses. Little is know about the beneficial effects of this terpene, but we do know that it has antimicrobial effects.

Guaiol

Guaiol has a unique piney aroma, similar to pinene, and is found in cypress pine and guaiacum. The beneficial effects of Guaiol have been traced back to the 18th century for the treatment of sore throat, gout, rheumatism, and more.

Today, it has been found to have strong Antimicrobial effects in Cannabis.

 

Strains that have Guaiol include:

  • Royal Gorilla

  • Sour Diesel

  • Kali Dog

  • Haze Berry

Isoborneol

Isoborneol has a sweet, musty aroma and is found in mugwort. The beneficial effects of this terpene are:

  • Antioxidant

  • Anti-inflammatory

  • Antiviral

  • Limited Antimicrobial

 

Isoborneol is a potent inhibitor of Herpes Simplex Type 1 Virus.

Isopulegol

Isopulegol has a minty, menthol aroma and is found in rhododendron shrubs. The benefits this terpene provides are:

  • Gastroprotective

  • Anti-Inflammatory

 

Isopulegol is also showing promising effects on reducing the severity of seizures in animal studies.

 

Strains that have Isopulegol are:

  • Kosher Tangie

Menthol

Menthol has a strong mint, peppermint aroma and is found in plants from the mint family. The beneficial effects this terpene provides are:

  • Analgesic

  • Local Anesthetic

 

Menthol is also used to relieve minor throat irritation.

 

Strains with Menthol include:

  • Green Monster

  • SinMint Cookies

  • Snowcap

  • Omega

  • Space Needle

  • Banana Cream OG

Nerolidol

Nerolidol (trans-nerolidol) has a mild floral, citrus, woody aroma. It is found in ginger, orange peels, and tea tree. The beneficial effects this terpene provides are:

  • Sedative

  • Antifungal

  • Antimalarial

  • Antileishmaniasis

 

Strains that have Nerolidol are:

  • Jack Herer

  • Sweet Skunk

  • Skywalker OG

Phellandrene

α-Phellandrene has a herbaceous, minty, peppery, and woodsy aroma. It is found in many common plants including Parsley, Dill, Angelica, Black Pepper, and Ginger Grass. The benefits this terpene provides are:

  • Analgesic

  • Anti-Inflammatory

  • Anti-Anxiety

  • Anti-Bacterial

  • Mood Enhancement

  • Energy Boosting

 

Some studies are looking into the anti-cancer properties of Phellandrene, as it may cause apoptosis of Leukemia Cells.

Phytol

Phytol, unlike most of the other terpenes, is a diterpene that is a by-product of decomposed chlorophyll. This terpene has a floral, balsamic aroma and is found in green tea. Phytol has some amazing beneficial effects, including:

  • Immunosuppressant

  • Anti-itch

  • Relaxant

 

Strains that have high amounts of Phytol include:

  • Harlequin

  • Sour Diesel

  • Cheese

  • Cannatonic

  • Northern Lights

  • Trident

Pulegone

Pulegone has a peppermint aroma and is found in mint species. The benefits this terpene provides are:

  • Relaxant

  • Sedative

  • Insecticide

 

Pulegone is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that counteracts THC’s ability to lower acetylcholine levels. Acetylcholine proteins are used in the brain to store memory. When synergizing Pulegone with THC, your potential for memory loss is much lower.

 

Strains with Pulegone are:

  • Candy Kush

  • Bubblegum

Sabinene

Sabinene has a peppery, woody, and spicy aroma. It can be found in carrot seeds, oak, tea tree, and black pepper. The beneficial effects of this terpene are:

  • Antioxidant

  • Anti-Inflammatory

  • Benefit Liver function and Digestion

 

Sabinene is usually found in “Haze” genetics and other piney strains.

Terpinene

Terpinene has a herbaceous, sweet, citrus aroma. It is found and commercially extracted from tea tree oil. The beneficial effects of this terpene are:

  • Antimicrobial

  • Antioxidant

  • Antiproliferative

  • Anti-Inflammatory

These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA and are not intended to diagnose, treat or cure
any disease. Always check with your physician before starting a new dietary supplement program.

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